The following are PDF files


picture of drawing views
Standard Drawing Views

squaring up stock
How to Square up stock

undimensioned drawing
How to dimension a drawing ,you try
solution here

Cutting Speed and Feeds

Some considerations to your choices:

  • rigid set up
    • is your part secure? no-take lighter cuts
    • is your tool as short as possible to do the job? no-use a lower speed
    • is the machine rigid? no-use a lower speed and feed
  • is your tool sharp? no-reduce your speed and feed or get a new cutter
  • does your material work harden? start in the middle of the range
  • chip formation & chip evacuation
  • inner voice-self preservation-if you are not comfortable with the caculated speed and feed, start off on the lower end of the range

Simplified Speeds and Feeds

S= (CS x 4) ÷ D

S= Speed (revolutions per minute) - how fast you spin the part or tool
CS = Cutting Speed of the material (surface feet per minute)
D = Diameter of the rotating tool or part (inches)

CS for typical materials using high speed cutting tools, for carbide tools increase the CS by 1½ -3 times
Aluminum          200-300
Brass                100-200
Copper              60-80
Plastic                200 varies greatly, depending on the type of plastic
Steel                 80-100
Stainless Steel   40-50

FR=Feed Rate (inches per minute) - how fast you cut across the part

FR=CS x # of teeth in tool x chip load

Rule of Thumb
Increase the Feed Rate or Decrease the Speed to remove chatter

For example:
Cutting Aluminum block with a ½” ø high speed end mill with 2 flutes
S = (300 x 4 ) ÷ .5 = 2400 RPM
FR = 2400 x 2 x .001 = 4.8 ipm
this is a good place to start