Abstract: Climate change is among the most important global challenges of the 21st century, affecting nearly every aspect of society including public health, food production, supply chains, inflation, financial/economic risk, human migration and geopolitics. National competitiveness and environmental justice for traditionally underserved communities are rapidly growing additional concerns. Responses to climate change include decarbonization to avoid its worst consequences, resilience to minimize its impact and adaptation to accommodate unavoidable change. These responses can be implemented through technology, policy and cultural change. Each of these options will be considered and put into perspective.