Abstract: We analyze the quantum efficiency of a microwave photon detector based on a current-biased Josephson junction. We consider the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian to describe coupling between the photon field and the junction. We then take into account coupling of the junction and the resonator to the environment. We solve the equation of motion of the density matrix of the resonator-junction system to compute the quantum efficiency of the detector as a function of detection time, bias current, and energy relaxation time. Our results indicate that junctions with modest coherence properties can provide efficient detection of single microwave photons, with quantum efficiency in excess of 80%.