Coral reefs are vibrant communities that host a quarter of all species in the ocean and are indirectly crucial to the survival of the rest. But they are slowly dying — some estimates say 30 to 50 percent of reefs have been lost — due to climate change.
In a new study, University of Wisconsin–Madison physicists observed reef-forming corals at the nanoscale and identified how they create their skeletons. The results provide an explanation for how corals are resistant to acidifying oceans caused by rising carbon dioxide levels and suggest that controlling water temperature, not acidity, is crucial to mitigating loss and restoring reefs.
“Coral reefs are currently threatened by climate change. It’s not in the future, it’s in the present,” says Pupa Gilbert, a physics professor at UW–Madison and senior author of the study. “How corals deposit their skeletons is fundamentally important to assess and help their survival.”