“Sandwich” structure found to reduce errors caused by quasiparticles in superconducting qubits

Qubits are notoriously more prone to error than their classical counterparts. While superconducting quantum computers currently use on the order of 100 to 1000 qubits, an estimated one million qubits will be needed to track and correct errors in a quantum computer designed for real-world applications. At present, it is not known how to scale superconducting qubit circuits to this size.

In a new study published in PRX Quantum, UW–Madison physicists from Robert McDermott’s group developed and tested a new superconducting qubit architecture that is potentially more scalable than the current state of the art. Control of the qubits is achieved via “Single Flux Quantum” (SFQ) pulses that can be generated close to the qubit chip. They found that SFQ-based control fidelity improved ten-fold over their previous versions, providing a promising platform for scaling up the number of qubits in a quantum array.

profile photo of Robert McDermott
Robert McDermott
profile photo of Vincent Liu
Vincent Liu

The architecture involves a sandwich of two chips: one chip houses the qubits, while the other contains the SFQ control unit. The new approach suppresses the generation of quasiparticles, which are disruptions in the superconducting ground state that degrade qubit performance.

“This structure physically separates the two units, and quasiparticles on the SFQ chip cannot diffuse to the quantum chip and generate errors,” explains Chuan-Hong Liu, PhD ’23, a former UW–Madison physics graduate student and lead author of the study. “This design is totally new, and it greatly improves our gate fidelities.”

Liu and his colleagues assessed the fidelity of SFQ-based gates through randomized benchmarking. In this approach, the team established operating parameters to maximize the overall fidelity of complex control sequences. For instance, for a qubit that begins in the ground state, they performed long sequences incorporating many gates that should be equivalent to an identity operation; in the end, they measured the fraction of the population remaining in the ground state. A higher measured ground state population indicated higher gate fidelity.

Inevitably, there are residual errors, but the reduced quasiparticle poisoning was expected to lower the error rate and improve gate fidelities — and it did.

four panels showing the new chip architecture. The two on the left just show the two computer chips, and then the top right panel shows them "sandwiched" on top of each other. The bottom right panel is a circuit diagram of the whole setup.
The quantum-classical multichip module (MCM). (a) A micrograph of the qubit chip. (b) A micrograph of the SFQ driver chip. (c) A photograph showing the assembled MCM stack; the qubit chip is outlined in red and the SFQ chip is outlined in blue. (d) The circuit diagram for one qubit-SFQ pair. | From Liu et al, PRX Quantum.

“Most of the gates had 99% fidelity,” Liu says. “That’s a one order of magnitude reduction in infidelity compared to the last generation.”

Importantly, they showed the stability of the SFQ-based gates over the course of a six-hour experimental run.

Later in the study, the researchers investigated the source of the remaining errors. They found that the SFQ unit was emitting photons with sufficient energy to create quasiparticles on the qubit chip. With the unique source of the error identified, Liu and his colleagues can develop ways to improve the design.

“We realized this quasiparticle generation is due to spurious antenna coupling between the SFQ units and the qubit units,” Liu says. “This is really interesting because we usually talk about qubits in the range of one to ten gigahertz, but this error is in the 100 to 1000 gigahertz range. This is an area people have never explored, and we provide a straightforward way to make improvements.”

This study is a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Syracuse University, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and UW–Madison.

This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (DMR-1747426); the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) Accelerator; Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA-20001-D2022-2203120004); and the NIST Program on Scalable Superconducting Computing and the National Nuclear Security Administration Advanced Simulation and Computing Beyond Moore’s Law program (LLNL-ABS-795437).

Physics has three winners in the Cool Science Image contest!

The winners of the UW–Madison 13th annual Cool Science Image contest were announced, and Physics has three winners! Our winners include graduate student Jacob Scott, the graduate student-professor pairing of Jimena González and Keith Bechtol, and alum Aedan Gardill, PhD ’23. Their winning images are below.

A panel of experienced artists, scientists and science communicators chose 12 winning images based on the aesthetic, creative and scientific qualities that distinguished them from scores of entries. The winning entries showcase the research, innovation, scholarship and curiosity of the UW–Madison community through visual representations of socioeconomic strata, brain cells snuffed out in Parkinson’s disease, the tangle of technology required to equip a quantum computing lab and a bug-eyed frog that opened students’ eyes to the world.

The winning images go on display this week in an exhibit at the McPherson Eye Research Institute’s Mandelbaum and Albert Family Vision Gallery on the ninth floor of the Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 111 Highland Ave. The exhibit, which runs through the end of 2023, opens with a public reception at the gallery Thursday, Sept. 28, from 4:30 to 6:30 p.m. The exhibit also includes historical images of UW science, in celebration of the 175th anniversary of the University of Wisconsin’s founding.

The Cool Science Image Contest recognizes the technical and creative skills required to capture and create images, videos and other media that reveal something about science or nature while also leaving an impression with their beauty or ability to induce wonder. The contest is sponsored by Madison’s Promega Corp., with additional support from UW–Madison’s Office of University Communications.

a photograph of a room with the lights off, but the bulk of the image is taken up by a large piece of complicated equipment with many different colored laser lights visible, illuminating the shape of the equipment
The glow of red and green lasers and an array of supporting electronics fill a UW–Madison lab where physicists study the behavior of cesium atoms cooled within a fraction of a degree of absolute zero. The atoms could be used to store information in quantum computing systems. | Jacob Scott
an oddly-shaded portrait of physicist Marie Curie, which can only be viewed when a light polarizer is held in front of the portrait
Like the radiation she studied, this portrait of physicist Marie Curie is invisible until revealed by the proper equipment — in this case, a polarizer, a filter that blocks all light waves except those oscillating in a certain direction. One polarizing filter on the back layer of the portrait organizes the light shining through to the viewer. That light passes through layers of colorless cellophane, which rotate the waves a little or a lot depending on the layer’s thickness. A second polarizing filter, held by the viewer, filters the light again, selecting light at the wavelengths that correspond to the intended colors of the portrait. The image above is as the portrait appears viewed through a polarizer. | Aedan Gardill PhD ’23
an array of red-glowing images on a dark black background
Each image in this collage is of an astronomical phenomenon known as a strong gravitational lens, in which the light from a galaxy or cluster of galaxies is curved by a massive object in the foreground. The light is distorted into bright arcs, exhibiting physics theorized by Albert Einstein. Strong gravitational lenses offer a way to study dark matter, difficult to detect but considered a crucial factor in the structure, evolution and fate of the cosmos. | Jimena González and Keith Bechtol

Jimena González wins 2023 OSG David Swanson Award

Early in her thesis research, Jimena González was waiting. A lot.

To better understand the nature of dark energy, she uses machine learning to search Dark Energy Survey cosmology data for evidence of strong gravitational lensing — where a heavy foreground galaxy bends the light of another galaxy, producing multiple images of it that can get so distorted that they appear as long arcs of light around the large galaxy in telescope images. She also focuses on finding very rare cases of strong gravitational lensing in which two galaxies are lensed by the same foreground galaxy, systems known as double-source-plane lenses.

First, she had to create simulations of the galaxy systems. Next, she used those simulations to train the machine learning model to identify the systems in the heaps and heaps of DES data. Lastly, she would apply the trained model to the real DES data. All told, she expected to find hundreds of “simple” strong gravitational lenses and only a few double-source-plane lenses out of 230 million images.

“But, for example, when I did the search the first time, I mostly only got spiral galaxies, so then I had to include spiral galaxies in my training,” says González, a physics graduate student in Keith Bechtol’s group.

The initial steps took around two weeks (hence the waiting) before she could even know what needed to be changed to better train the model. Once she had the model trained and would be ready to apply it to the entire dataset, she estimated it would take five to six years just to find the images of interest — and then she would finally be able to study the systems found.

a woman stands in front of a screen with a research slide on the screen, she faces the audience and is gesturing with her hands.
Jimena González presents an award lecture at the 2023 Throughput Computing Conference. (provided by Jimena González)

Then, the email from the Open Science Grid (OSG) Consortium came. The OSG Consortium operates a fabric of distributed High Throughput Computing (dHTC) services, allowing users to take advantage of massive amounts of computing power. Researchers can apply to the OSG User School, an annual workshop for scientists who want to learn and use dHTC methods.

“[dHTC] is parallelizing things. It’s like if you had 500 exams to grade, you can distribute them among different people and it would take less time,” González says. “It sounded perfect for me.”

González applied and was accepted into the 2021 program, which was run virtually that year. At the OSG User School, she learned methods that would allow her to take advantage of dHTC and apply them to her work. Her multi-year processing time was cut down to mere days.

“Because it was so fast, there were many new things that I could implement in my research,” González says. “A lot of the methodology I implemented would not have been possible without OSG.”

This summer, González was selected as one of two recipients of the OSG David Swanson Award.

David Swanson was a longtime champion of and contributor to OSG, who passed away in 2016. In his memory, the award is bestowed annually upon one or more former students of the OSG User School who have subsequently achieved significant dHTC-enabled research outcomes.

She accepted the award at the Throughput Computing 2023 conference, where she presented her research and discussed how she used her training from the OSG User School to successfully comb through the DES data and find the systems of interest.

“When I got the award, I didn’t know anything about [Swanson],” González says. “But once I attended this event, I heard so many people talking about him, and I understood why it was created. It is such an honor to receive this award in his name.”

Stas Boldyrev earns DOE funding to investigate turbulence in relativistic plasmas

This post was adapted from a U.S. Department of Energy announcement

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Stas Boldyrev

 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced August 23 that it is funding $9.96M to support research in basic plasma science and engineering as well as frontier plasma science experiments at several midscale DOE Collaborative Research Facilities (CRFs) across the nation. The funding will go to 20 universities — including to UW–Madison physics professor Stas Boldyrev — four private companies, and one national laboratory.

The funding will cover 30 awards aimed at supporting basic plasma science research as well as increasing research productivity and participation of U.S. researchers in the CRFs. The awards include three-year single investigator or small group projects as well as short-term, one-time seed funding projects.

“Basic and low temperature plasma science is an important area with many scientific and technological impacts,” said Jean Paul Allain, DOE Associate Director of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences. “The research funded under this FOA will enable the U.S research community to address many fundamental and technological science challenges helping to ensure continued American leadership in this critical field.”

Boldyrev’s award will investigate turbulence in relativistic plasmas, which is more poorly understood compared to its non-relativistic counterpart. Relativistic plasma turbulence exists in extremely hot and energetic natural systems, where plasma and/or particle flow rates approach the speed of light, and it is required to explain radiation spectra of space phenomena such as solar flares or galactic nuclei jets.

“This project intends to develop analytical, phenomenological, and numerical models of turbulent energy cascades, and describe how such turbulence interacts with magnetic fields,” Boldyrev says. “We will concentrate on universal statistical properties of relativistic turbulence, which makes the results applicable to various lab, space, and astronomy environments, where such turbulence is present.”

Vadim Roytershteyn of the Space Science Institute is a co-investigator.

Through machine learning maps, cosmic history comes into focus

By Jason Daley, UW–Madison College of Engineering

three images of low-res input data, high-res ground truth data, and super-resolution output data as heatmaps. A top left graph panell shows the power spectrum of the data
Using machine learning techniques, Kangwook Lee and his collaborators are able to produce high-resolution images from low-resolution simulations. These types of techniques could help improve large scale models, like the Illustris Simulation, shown here. In this simulation, dark matter density is overlaid with the gas velocity field. Credit: Illustris Collaboration

For millennia, humans have used optical telescopes, radio telescopes and space telescopes to get a better view of the heavens.

Today, however, one of the most powerful tools for understanding the cosmos is the computer chip: Cosmologists rely on processing power to analyze astronomical data and create detailed simulations of cosmic evolution, galaxy formation and other far-out phenomena. These powerful simulations are starting to answer fundamental questions of how the universe began, what it is made of and where it’s likely headed.

“It is extremely expensive to run these simulations and basically takes forever,” says Kangwook Lee, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “So they cannot run them for large-scale simulations or for high-resolution at that same time. There are a lot of issues coming from that.”

Instead, machine learning expert Lee and physics colleagues Moritz Münchmeyer and Gary Shiu are using emerging artificial intelligence techniques to speed up the process and get a clearer view of the cosmos.

Read the full story

Choy leads team awarded National Science Foundation Quantum Sensing Challenge Grant

The National Science Foundation has selected a proposal “Compact and robust quantum atomic sensors for timekeeping and inertial sensing” by an interdisciplinary team led by University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers for...

Read the full article at: https://engineering.wisc.edu/blog/choy-leads-team-awarded-national-science-foundation-quantum-sensing-challenge-grant/

Ke Fang, Ellen Zweibel earn Simons Foundation funding to study electrodynamics in extreme environments

Much of what we understand about fundamental physics is based on experiments done in the convenient “lab” of earth. But our planet is just one location, with its own relatively mild electromagnetic field. Do forces and energies work the same on earth as they do in all corners of the universe?

profile photo of Ellen Zweibel
Ellen Zweibel
profile photo of Ke Fang
Ke Fang

“It’s never guaranteed, as we see many theories break down at extreme environments,” says University of Wisconsin­–Madison physics professor Ke Fang. “For example, a neutron star offers a magnetic field that is trillions of times stronger than on the Earth, and magnetars offer a field that is hundreds of trillions of time stronger. They are natural places to test many fundamental physics theories.”

Fang and UW–Madison astronomy and physics professor Ellen Zweibel are part of a new research collaboration announced August 21 by the Simons Foundation. The Simons Collaboration on Extreme Electrodynamics of Compact Sources (SCEECS) will study how electrodynamics — the interaction of electric currents and magnetic fields — behave in extreme environments in the distant universe using a combination of theory, simulation, and observation.

SCEECS has six main research questions, three centered on understanding electrodynamics in neutron stars and three centered in black holes. Each question pairs at least one senior-level investigator with an early-career co-investigator. Zweibel serves as the lead investigator on her black hole question, and she is paired with Richard Anantua at UT-San Antonio. Fang is co-investigator on a neutron star question, and she is paired with Anatoly Spitkovsky at Princeton.

a wispy, circular set of colorful lines emanate from a center point, indicating the electromagnetic field shooting out of a neutron star
“Particle in cell” simulation of the magnetic field and electric current associated with a spinning and strongly magnetized neutron star (adapted from Philippov and Kramer 2023) | From SCEECS

The neutron star “labs” that Fang is using are amongst the most dense stars in the universe — as small as 10 kilometers in diameter and with densities a million billion times that of water. High energy particles streaming from neutron stars are detectable on Earth, but they tend to be significantly altered by the time they make it here.

“How do those particles survive, in the sense that these extreme energy particles would interact with the surrounding media and produce secondary particles, and how do these interactions play a role in converting what you see on Earth?” Fang’s research asks. “There are also several major questions revealed by recent observations, such as extended TeV gamma-ray halos around neutron stars that are completely new phenomena. We would like to go from first principle physics to understand these phenomena.”

Zweibel’s research will use the extreme environment of spinning black holes, where the electromagnetic field has recently been identified as a major factor in accretion flows, or the movement of gases into the dense center. Her question asks how these accretion flows contribute to magnetizing black holes to form relativistic jets, or powerful emissions of radiation and high-energy particles.

a small black point at the center of the image is flanked by two brown-ish blobs made of flowing lines, like magma flowing down a volcano. Grey parabolic lines also shoot out the top and bottom.
Simulation of the magnetic field threading the black hole and confined by orbiting gas (adapted from Ripperda et al. 2022) | From SCEECS

“Accretion disks, their magnetic fields, and their magnetized jets are found throughout the Universe. They play essential roles in star formation, in the evolution of double, or binary stars, and in many other astrophysical settings,” Zweibel says. “The magnetized accretion disks surrounding black holes are by far the most extreme, and test our theories to the limits. Remarkably, we can circle back to laboratory plasma experiments, including some right here at UW, to study magnetized disks and jets as well.”

SCEECS is housed at Stanford University and includes researchers from 14 other US and international universities. UW­–Madison and Columbia University are the only universities that have more than one investigator in the collaboration. Most of the funding will be used to support investigators, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

The collaboration plans to host an in-person kick-off in October at Stanford with regular virtual meetings throughout the year. Those meetings will be a place where everyone involved in the research, including students, postdocs, and faculty, can provide updates and seek feedback. Larger-scale collaborations such as this one are nothing new to physicists, but those groups are almost always made up of experimental physicists.

“It’s rare for theorists to be in a larger collaboration because we’re usually working alone or in a small group,” Fang says. “This program is exciting because it collects leading theorists in the field from many different institutions and provides a network for us to collaborate with each other.”

The Simons Foundation’s mission is to advance the frontiers of research in mathematics and the basic sciences. The Foundation makes grants in four areas, including Mathematics and Physical Sciences, through which this collaboration is supported.

Zain Abhari selected for SACLA graduate internship

a woman stands in front of a tree with a Japanese castle in the near background
Zain Abhari on a tour at Himeji Castle, which is one of the last few fully intact castles in Japan and is located near the SACLA facility | Photo provided by Zain Abhari

Congrats to Physics PhD student Zain Abhari for being selected to the SACLA Research Support Program for Graduate Students. The one-year internship run by SACLA (the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser) accepts graduate students with a demonstrated interest in using X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) for their research and provides them with training and beam time at the facility in Japan.

Prior to her acceptance in the program, Abhari had already spent time at SACLA as part of her research in Uwe Bergmann’s group. While there, her collaborator told her about the program and recommended she apply.

“My goal after the PhD is to work at one of these large-scale facilities, specifically the X-ray free electron lasers and there’s only six of them right now in the world,” Abhari says. “If I can get my foot in the door in Japan, or get the experience to then help me with any of the other ones, that would be pretty awesome.”

Abhari was also interested in the program because SACLA’s laser aligns well with the goals of her thesis research, which is to obtain intense, stable XFEL pulses to apply to different spectroscopy techniques. For about the past decade, XFEL has allowed researchers to make ultrafast movies of molecular changes, essentially helping them to see chemical reactions take place. But x-ray lasers are “dirty,” and they contain multiple wavelengths of light of varying intensity. Last year, Bergmann and his colleagues somewhat accidentally discovered a way to make the pulses cleaner through two intense, femtosecond-spaced pulses.

Even though the researchers think they know how the useful pulses work, producing and controlling them are a completely different story — and one that Abhari hopes to unravel in her research.

“Right now, they’re just random,” Abhari says. “So the goal is to understand them. And then if we understand them, can we control them? If we can control them, can we apply them?”

Abhari will travel to Japan for three months beginning in September, where the program provides on-campus housing and time on the laser. Without the access she is now granted by this internship, her research would have been much more focused on short rounds of data collection followed by off-site data analysis.

“Now, I can get my hands on the laser and collect data to try to understand parameters that allow us to get the specific output we’re looking for,” Abhari says. “I have data that allude me to what those parameters will be, but now in real time, I can be like, ‘If I do this, I see this; if I do that, I see that.’”

In addition to her thesis research, Abhari will be working with her SACLA collaborators on a machine learning project to optimize beam focusing, and helping learn about and improve a portable beam nanofocusing apparatus.


Congrats to Prof. Joynt on his retirement!

37 years after joining the faculty of the department of physics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Prof. Bob Joynt has announced his retirement at the end of July.

Joynt is a condensed matter theorist who began as an assistant professor in 1986. His early work focused largely on superconductivity, including high temperature superconductors. He also played an important role in better understanding the Quantum Hall effect, dating back to his graduate work and continuing here. After a decade and a half, his career took a fortuitous turn when he wrote a quantum computing grant proposal with physics professor Mark Eriksson and other researchers in engineering.

profile photo of Bob Joynt
Prof. Bob Joynt

“That was really a pivotal point in my career, and I’ve been doing quantum computing mostly ever since,” Joynt recalls. “Change is good, I found. I enjoyed that change and I’m glad I did it.”

His work for the past 20 years has mainly focused on understanding the origins of noise and decoherence in quantum systems and in the design of semiconductor structures for quantum computing. Joynt is a fellow of the American Physical Society and a UW–Madison Romnes Faculty Fellow. He has co-authored over 175 peer-reviewed publications and trained 26 doctoral students, in addition to numerous postdocs and MS Physics­–Quantum Computing students.

Joynt’s academic and research achievements alone comprise an illustrious career that any retiring professor would likely be happy with. Still, his contributions to the department span so much more.

Joynt served as department chair from 2011-2014, for which he focused his efforts on department fundraising. He was responsible for starting the Board of Visitors, a group of people, mostly in industry, with strong ties to the department. The BoV advises and assists on department priorities, plays a leading role in fundraising, and provides a professional network for current students and alumni. From 2017-2022, Joynt additionally served as the department’s Associate Chair for Alumni Relations and the Board of Visitors.

a man stands near a white board looking at an unpictured audience. He is holding a wood pointer in his right hand and gesturing with his left hand.
Prof. Joynt lectures in this undated photo from earlier in his career

Around 2016, Joynt noted that doctoral students with quantum computing research experience were in such high demand that employers were often entering bidding wars for them. Was there a way to meet the demands of the quantum computing workforce by training students in a year or two? And so, thanks to Joynt’s vision and persistence, the MS in Physics–Quantum Computing program — the first MS in quantum computing in the U.S. — enrolled its first cohort in Fall 2019.

“We take about 25-30 PhD students each year, and now we take about the same number of MSQPC students,” Joynt says. “It’s become a big part of the department’s educational program.”

Adds Mark Eriksson, Department Chair and John Bardeen Professor of Physics: “Our department’s MSPQC program was the first in the nation and remains a model for others, thanks to Professor Joynt’s vision and energy.”

The department boasts the oldest hands-on science museum in the country — a claim we now feel confident making thanks to Joynt’s extensive research on the history of the Ingersoll Physics Museum for its 100th anniversary in 2018. The museum and physics outreach in general have always been important to Joynt. He has served in an informal capacity as faculty lead for the museum for several years now, helping to raise funds and ensure the museum fulfills its mission of providing free, hands-on, inquiry-based exhibits.

When asked what he wanted to be remembered for in the department, Joynt reflected on lessons from his career and then looked forward: “My advice to the department is: do new things. Don’t be afraid of change. Science changes, education changes, all these things are changing, and you need to change with them.”

Joynt’s retirement is official as of July 31, but he emphasizes that he is only retiring from administrative and teaching duties. He plans to continue his research efforts, sometimes in Madison and often abroad.

Mark Friesen, a senior scientist and long-time collaborator of Joynt’s, says he looks forward to continuing to work with Joynt in this new stage of his career, adding:

“When I joined the department, I knew Bob through reputation as one of the bright condensed matter physicists of his generation. I feel very fortunate to have worked with him, first as a mentor, and later as a colleague. Bob has a tremendous intuition for condensed matter that spans far beyond his immediate research efforts. He also has an easy-going and gracious style that draws in collaborators, and he is just fun to interact with, both inside and outside the department.”


Lu Lu receives 2023 IUPAP Early Career Scientist Prize

This story was originally posted by WIPAC

IceCube collaborator and UW–Madison assistant professor of physics Lu Lu received a 2023 International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) Early Career Scientist Prize “for her contributions to the development of high energy neutrino astronomy in the PeV energy region.” Lu accepted the award on July 27 during the opening ceremony at the 38th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC) held in Nagoya, Japan.

profile photo of Lu Lu
Lu Lu

Early Career Scientist Prizes are given to early career scientists within each IUPAP commission who have up to eight years of postdoctoral research experience and have made significant contributions to the cosmic ray field. Lu is a recipient of the Early Career Scientist Prize in the Commission on Astroparticle Physics (C4).

Her PhD work focused on developing a novel technique to search for ultra-high-energy photons using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory. She also played a leading role in the initial design of the “Dual optical sensors in an Ellipsoid Glass for Gen2” (D-Egg), a two-PMT optical module for the IceCube Upgrade.

More recently, she made key contributions to the multimessenger correlation studies of the neutrino source candidate TXS0506+056 and to the detection of a particle shower associated with the hadronic decay of a resonant W boson.

Lu is currently an assistant professor of physics at the Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center (WIPAC) at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Her current research focuses on diffuse high-energy astrophysical/cosmogenic neutrinos from TeV to EeV, Galactic PeVatron detection in the context of multimessenger observations, and the exploration of potential transient ultra-high-energy sources.

She is actively involved in IceCube outreach initiatives and has pioneered the development of an app that provides IceCube real-time alerts via augmented reality on mobile devices. Currently, she serves as co-lead of the diffuse science working group in IceCube and is one of three representatives of the physical science group of US-SCAR (Scientific Committee of Antarctic Research).

“I would like to express my deep appreciation for my collaborators and for those who work on foundational tasks such as reconstructions and calibrations, as their efforts behind the scenes make groundbreaking discoveries possible,” said Lu. “As early career scientists, we bear the responsibility of continuing and expanding experiments in the particle astrophysics field. We must collaborate and work together to ensure that the next generation of young scientists will have exciting discoveries to make.”